On Tuesday 23 May, Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte declared martial law in the southern island of Mindanao. The suspension of the writ of habeas corpus was announced soon after; it is meant to apply only to charges of rebellion or offenses related to invasion.
I grew up in northern Mindanao, three hours overland from Marawi where combined state forces clashed with Islamist militants this week in pursuit of 'high value targets'. The Abu Sayyaf and the Maute groups, which align themselves with ISIS, occupied a church and city hall.
On Friday morning, military and police officials declared the situation under control, with both groups flushed out of the city and hostages rescued. At least 20 people were killed; none are civilians. Security forces remain on high alert.
I have not been able to bring myself to ring my family. I'm sure they're fine. They live far away in a gated estate tucked into a hill. Mindanao has borne more than its share of violence but it is a large island, and conflict in one part does not mean all parts are raging. I still remember a joke from childhood, made by a smartarse uncle, that Islamist militants don't touch our city because that's where they do their shopping.
Somewhere in the past year, my sister and I made an unspoken agreement to not talk about politics, though it had been a staple of our phone conversations since I moved to Australia. My family had voted for Duterte. That is nothing to be smug about. Rather, I feel fearful and despondent. They had believed that it was going to be different. That change had come.
None of what continues to unravel in the Philippines is a shock. In August last year, barely more than a month from inauguration, Duterte mentioned the prospect of martial law in relation to his drug war. He raised it again and again as a means of dealing with criminality and extremism, a cure-all.
Duterte is the sixth president since the 1986 People Power revolution that overthrew Ferdinand Marcos. His administration facilitated the transfer of Marcos' remains to the Heroes' Cemetery. He is a close associate of the dictator's children. Martial law was long in play before the incidents in Marawi this week, and is in character for an ex-mayor with alleged links to 'death squads'.
Still, that a crisis in Mindanao has triggered a declaration of martial law — rather than the purported drug crisis that the president vowed to resolve — should give us pause. For one thing, it reflects the ease with which national governments have long used brute instruments in the south.
"Lawless violence, one of the constitutional bases for martial law, only seems to apply to Mindanao, even if a larger violence is burning through metropolitan Manila."
It is where the majority of Filipino Muslims live, where decades-old Muslim resentments are still potent, where ruthless bandits have lately found ideological cover.
Lawless violence, one of the constitutional bases for martial law, only seems to apply to Mindanao — even if a larger violence is burning through metropolitan Manila. State-sanctioned violence is fine. Routine evacuations of Muslim and indigenous Mindanaonons in the provinces is fine.
Yet whatever purported allegiances that Filipino Muslim extremists hold, the insurgencies in Mindanao predate 9/11 and ISIS. It can be traced to atrocities against their communities during the Marcos regime, and successive failures by Philippine governments to craft a structurally just and respectful relationship. These historical layers are far too complex to be reduced to contemporary narratives around terrorism.
It is also worth noting that Filipinos of different faiths have managed a peaceful coexistence in Marawi for some time. The prayers on social media for a safe resolution called as fervently on Allah. In the words of Mujiv Hataman, governor of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao: 'That these acts of terror are happening in a diverse community bound by mutual respect and a shared commitment to peace is a travesty. Any group who sows terror and then dares to say that they do it in the name of Islam should be ashamed. Any man who claims to fight for a just cause, yet dares to incite violence a few days before the Holy Month of Ramadhan, is a monster whose words belie his actions.'
If Duterte uses terrorist elements as an excuse to put the Philippines entirely under martial law or make it last longer than the prescribed 60 days, it could trigger political unrest and further jeopardise the economy. It will be a slow, self-perpetrating descent.
Security forces were able to stabilise the situation in Marawi, and it should be remarkable that it was quickly contained. This points to a matter of resources, coordination and close familiarity with the terrain. But there is no indication that Duterte will retract. Congress has power to revoke or extend the measure; the president has control of the legislature.
Given their recent battles against a revisionist campaign regarding martial law under Marcos, progressive Filipinos fear that the Philippines may soon come full, sordid circle.
Fatima Measham is a Eureka Street consulting editor. She co-hosts the ChatterSquare podcast, tweets as @foomeister and blogs on Medium.