Haiti needs to be free

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Flickr image by United Nations Development ProgrammeIn January, in the wake of the Haitian earthquake, The Age published a piece by Chris Berg, from the Right-wing think-tank Institute of Public Affairs. Berg argued that the only thing Haitians need now is to 'get away from Haiti'. For Berg, Haiti is a lost cause, and intrinsically unable to develop.

To prove his point, Berg cited the amount of aid wasted on Haiti and quoted the World Bank on the impossibility of making any progress due to the endemic political instability. The only solution is for Haitians to come and work (read: be exploited) in Western countries, learn our civilised ways and send money back home.

Of course, Berg is somewhat of a caricature. Most journalists did not express such narrow views. There were also notable exceptions, those who gave an informed picture of Haiti and its tragic history. Yet under the veneer of progressivism, many journalists and commentators reiterated the arguments Berg had put forth. Haiti was a failure, a doomed country that had been unable to lift itself out of poverty and perpetual political crisis.

A neo-colonial veil has settled on our Western media and brought back the pessimistic view regarding the ability of the 'barbarian' to ever civilise. Since Haiti became independent in 1804, the country has never been at peace and has never managed to survive without our assistance. Luckily, Haiti could rely on us. Not only are we giving money to the Haitians, but UN and US troops will implement peace in a country apparently prone to the most horrific looting. The earthquake was our chance to start anew and this time we 'would get Haiti right'! We would implement democracy, restore order, bring stability, peace and prosperity.

It was not the first time someone would try to 'get Haiti right'. The US claimed such a target after the 2004 coup against democratically elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Moreover, this episode was only the latest Western interference in Haiti's destiny, all of which have left Haiti ever poorer and dependent on our 'generosity'.

Yet Haiti had not always been poor. Before the small country became independent in 1804, it was the most profitable colony in the world. After a decade fighting the French, the British and the Spanish, Haiti was left in shambles and forced to divert most of its resources towards its military protection.

For freeing themselves, the Haitians were also found guilty of theft and were condemned to repay the French for the loss of their slaves. The debt crippled the economy of the war-ravaged country until its last repayment in 1947. It has been argued that France now owes Haiti up to US$21 billion.

By the time Haiti was free from its debt to France, the US had invaded in order to restore order. After 22 years of occupation, the deregulation of the economy, the strengthening of the army and the death of up to 30,000 Haitians, the US withdrew and left the country up for grabs by corrupted elitist generals.

Coups followed, the elite thrived and the population suffered. In 1957 François Duvalier took power and installed an extremely violent dictatorship which cost the lives of up to 50,000 Haitians. His strong anti-communism and Haiti's proximity to Cuba guaranteed him the tacit support of the US.

When his son took over in 1971, his policies of deregulation granted him the unconditional support of the Americans who found in Haiti extremely cheap labour. For the second time, the Haitian population rose in the face of incommensurable adversity and overthrew the dictator. Reagan's Air Force escorted Duvalier to his villa on the French Riviera; 'Baby Doc' left behind a colossal debt.

In 1990, popular uprisings forced the junta to organise legitimate elections and Aristide was elected in a landslide by the poor majority. He was ousted after only seven months by the Haitian elite ultra-minority. Many of his supporters were killed in the repression that ensued.

Eventually, Clinton agreed to 'help' Aristide — both to ease the recent Somali fiasco and to stop the flow of Haitian refugees into the US. In exchange, Aristide was requested to amnesty the coup-leaders, share power with them and bow to the IMF's drastic recommendations. Aristide had no choice but to accept, as 70 per cent of the country's operating budget came from foreign aid and loans.

The 'benefits' of globalisation and Haiti's dependence on the IMF brought 'real' democracy to Haiti. According to Oxfam, as a result of international pressures, Haiti became 'one of the most liberal trade regimes in the world'. With tariff cuts, Haiti, which had once been self-sufficient in rice, was flooded with subsidised American rice.

The poultry sector underwent the same changes at the cost of 10,000 jobs. The agrarian sector was dismantled to be replaced by an arguably stronger industrial one. Many American corporations were able to enjoy the lowest wages in the hemisphere and incredibly lenient business regulations. But by the turn of the century, unemployment had exploded as many corporations had left, finding better opportunities in Asia.

Yet the Aristide government managed to pursue some progressive reforms and in a few years build more schools than in the whole history of the country. Health programs were also improved, and the government planned to double the minimum wage.

Aristide's reforms were brought to a stop in 2003, following complaints formulated by the minority elite opposition and the suspension of American aid until Aristide agreed to become more amenable, less 'dictatorial'. Again, Aristide was forced to make unjust concessions. It proved insufficient, and bloody attacks were organised by militias hired by Aristide's democratically defeated opponents.

The wave of violence soon 'forced' the United States and France, under Security Council approval, to invade Haiti on 29 February 2004. According to the United Nations report of the Secretary-General on Haiti, Aristide was exiled in order to provide Haitians with 'a peaceful, democratic and locally-owned future'.

An earthquake the strength of that of 12 January would have caused severe damage in the richest countries on this planet; Haiti's economic and political situation make it much worse. 300,000 people might have died in the event, and yet what remains most haunting is our oblivion as to our responsibility in such a death toll.

Far be it from me to deter individuals from offering their help after such a disaster. However, the media coverage and lack of objective reporting on Haiti's past have led  many to react unconsciously in a neo-colonialist, borderline racist, manner.

Yes, the Haitians need help, but they are not a failed people, nor are they worse people than their Dominican neighbours. Nor are they a lawless primitive people who have turned to looting corpses and destroyed houses. At the present time, many trustworthy reports have highlighted the low level of insecurity in Port-Au-Prince following the dramatic events of 12 January.

Two hundred years ago, Haiti became a beacon of light and freedom for all oppressed people. For the first time, human rights had a universal value. For the first time, colonialism was defeated and complete equality made possible. As Peter Hallward pointed out, this declaration 'dealt the myth of white supremacy a mortal and thus unforgivable blow'. For this, the little country would pay, even up to the present day.

Only a deep introspection in our system and its inegalitarian, intrinsically racist basis could allow Haiti to be recognised as the symbol of equality and emancipation that it is. Haiti might need our help after the earthquake, but most importantly Haiti needs to be free.


Aurelien MondonAurélien Mondon is a PhD Candidate at La Trobe University. His research focuses on populism, racism, nationalism and equality. His other interests are mostly centred on neo-colonialism and particularly the Congolese and Haitian cases. He is part of the Melbourne Free University project which starts in May 2010.

 

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Topic tags: aurelien mondon, haiti, history, earthquake, papa doc, baby doc, duvalier, colonialism

 

 

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Interesting article! I only know about Haiti through the Tonton Macoutes from Graham green's book. But I agree that the haitians are not a failed people, just so very unlucky. They have produced coffee, quite successfully, while under the French (whom they murdered and burnt their coffee plantations, a long time ago) All the same, they need help, and the Welsh Chief Minister has started a help program by donating some money for the 6,000 Haitians who worked in these plantations. I believe the UK govt has chipped in, and so has the UN. That is a beginning. Please refer to the Canberra Times, food supplement of 27 January 2010, where this information comes from. Our rudd govt should be doing the same as the Welsh!
Nathalie | 05 February 2010


Thanks for the very helpful, insightful article. And the mainstream media - please write more about the history of colonialism and neo-colonialism of Haiti!
Chromartie | 05 February 2010


Thanks Chromartie, I'll try and write more soon. If you're interested in Haiti and the neo-colonial history of the country, there is an excellent article by Peter Hallward called 'Option Zero in Haiti' on the New Left Review website. Hallward also wrote an amazing book on the topic called 'Damming the Flood'.

Nathalie, I think you're right that at the moment it is important to provide Haiti with some aid. however, the issue is that this aid might come at the further cost of making the country more dependent on international bodies.
It is this dependence that has crippled the country for over 2 centuries.

As for the murder of the French and the burning of their crops, the Haitians lived at the time in the most cruel colony in the world and the worst acts of torture happened every day. To get a good idea of the life in SAint-Domingue under French rule, I recommend James' book the Black Jacobins. If the Haitian burnt their crops, it was only to stop the colonial powers at the time (France, Spain and England) from coming back.
Aurelien | 05 February 2010


This is an excellent article. Thank you. If only it could get the prominence in mainstream media that is given to the apologists for colonialism.
Anna McCormack | 05 February 2010


Thank you for this terrific article. Colonialism and it's cousin Neo Imperialism are alive and well, engaging in acts of violence, destabalisation and invasion in the name of "democracy". But I agree that we saw a profound example of something closer to real grassroots democracy in the initial election of Aristide in Haiti, and perhaps it was this act of independence and self sovereignty that the Imperial west found so threatening, and hence resulted in the coup. But the capacity of the people of Haiti is without question. For another article on the subject by John Pilger written last week see: http://www.greenleft.org.au/2010/824/42366
Francis | 06 February 2010


Whatever the merits of this article may be on Haiti and its history with various colonial powers, I find it disheartening that no mention is made of the massive amount of aid being sent to Haiti by the West, especially America. Some of the comments also see nothing but evil from America. All sorts of evil "isms" are mentioned, but never the "humanism" that saw the US move massive amounts of people and supplies to help a stricken nation. No, that would make the picture complex rather than the simple mantra "USA, the root of all evil.
Patrick James | 06 February 2010


To Patrick,

My article is certainly not aimed at caricaturing America as 'the root of all evil', nor is it to deny that a lot of people from many different countries have offered help to Haiti in a truly compassionate manner.
However, the point I am trying to make is that this help was more than often patronising and this humanitarianism you mention is neo-colonial inasmuch as it did not allow the Haitian people to control their own destiny.

The money and aid poured into Haiti by different countries (not only America) have led to a dramatic weakening of the economic infrastructure of the country as these aid were only given when the Haitian engaged in deregulation.

The word limit that was given to me did not allow me to go into detail. Some interesting figures can be found there: http://newmatilda.com/2010/01/27/haitis-200year-earthquake
Aurelien | 14 February 2010


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