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Gallipoli Diggers and the 'forgotten' holocaust


'Armenian Anzac Day', by Chris JohnstonAnzac Day is a day history has immortalised. We know 25 April 1915 was when the 'digger' — one of Australia's most identifiable and beloved icons — dug the first trench into the rocky canyon at Gallipoli that would soon be his grave. Albeit a military disaster, many recognise the battle as a defining moment, one that forged a nation.

That same day, the same place and the same battle also mark a nation's destruction. The battle at Gallipoli was the first stage in an effort to systematically exterminate the Armenian race. Denied by Turkey, and unrecognised by the United States, the Armenian Genocide — dubbed 'The Forgotten Holocaust' — has slipped from the memory of a world that has grown accustomed to atrocity.

But it happened. Everyone knows it did. It's the reason 1.5 million Armenians remain unaccounted for, and why their skulls and bones are still embedded in the clay of the north-Syrian river banks. It's the reason modern Armenia's borders lie far away from its historic home.

Just as two decades later Hitler deported Jews to concentration camps in Poland, the Pashas — the Ottoman rulers — expelled the Armenians from their homeland.

Due to nothing more than a fear of Armenians siding with the Russians, and a desire to create a uniformly ethnic pan-Turkic state from Anatolia to central Asia (hindered only by Armenia), the Turkish nationalists embarked on the most horrific crime against humanity the world had seen.

At the Gallipoli landing, the Turks conscripted hundreds of Armenians in the momentous battle for nothing more than cannon fodder. As they ran unarmed into our troops' firing line, it was mass-execution.

The Ottoman government executed 600 of the Armenian educated-elite in Istanbul on 24 April, the very day before the Gallipoli landing, and, immediately afterwards pursued the rest in the Anatolian highlands.

From 1915, tens of thousands of Armenian families crossed a desert the locals called Der-el-Zor, but which the survivors would later name the Desert of Death. They marched for weeks at a time, snaking across the desert, not daring to fall behind in the heat. They faced death by starvation or execution.

Survivors tell of seeing women taken from the rows of prisoners into the fields, hearing screeches, gunfire and, after a time, seeing the soldiers returning alone. Thousands were marched into underground caves in what were the world's first gas chambers.

Mamikon came from a village near the border of Azerbaijan. His parents hid him from the government so he would not be conscripted to be killed at the Dardanelles or forced to join a labour camp at far-away places like Baghdad. Mamikon was a 16-year-old boy.

At his village, they were starved of water. In desperation his mother would cut her fingers and feed her blood to her son so he would not die of thirst.

Children like him from villages all across Armenia were hidden from the government, often in the homes of sympathetic Turkish neighbours. And they watched the Armenians of their villages rounded up and marched off, never to return.

From behind the dark windows of their refuge, they would hear soldiers descend on defenceless Armenian women and elders, killing them with guns or with scythes. After the last cry was stilled, only the lucky ones were left there in a silent village.

'Who now remembers the Armenians?' joked Adolf Hitler as he embarked on a holocaust of his own. While he was mistaken in thinking that his genocide of European Jewry would be similarly overlooked, his words ring sadly true. Turkey denies the claims of an Armenian genocide and manipulates history to conceal anything that suggests otherwise.

In fact, the Turkish government does not even acknowledge that Armenians ever lived in those areas from which they were deported and killed: not even by the banks of the vast and glimmering Lake Van, the ancient capital where Armenian nationality was forged among the Nairi tribes over 2000 years ago; or on the white-capped Mount Ararat that soars into the clouds above it, the very symbol of Armenia, the centrepiece of its national flag.

In 2007, tens of thousands of Armenians and Turks gathered in Istanbul to commemorate the life of Hrant Dink, a decorated writer who demanded recognition of this genocide and spent his life's work striving to bridge the rift between the two nations.

'Hepimiz Hrant'iz! Hepimiz Ermeni'yiz!' read the banners that stretched across the wide streets of Istanbul on 19 January: 'We are all Armenian. We are all Hrant Dink.'

The last to leave the office building of the local Armenian newspaper, The Agos, Dink was confronted by two assassins who appeared from the shadows. They were young boys, ultra-nationalists. Pulling their pistols, they fired two bullets to his head and two to his chest.

He was not starved, he was not gassed, his wife and daughters were not raped and his children were not burned alive, but, in the words of the decorated British journalist, Robert Fisk, Dink was the 1,500,001st victim of the genocide. 'At least the world will not forget him so easily.'

His death stands as an example of the continuing hatred and intolerance that initially wrought this crime against humanity over 90 years ago.

Nicholas ToscanoNicholas Toscano is a freelance writer and a student of Classics and Creative Writing at Melbourne University. He has a Diploma in Modern Languages.

Topic tags: nick toscano, forgotten holocaust, armenian genocide, first world war, anzac day, diggers, gallipoli



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Existing comments

Atrocities pass into history and fade. It is good that recent events are recalled and pressed to be accounted for in the life of any nation.
A few links to this item would have been helpful.

Elizabeth Clarke | 19 April 2009  

There is more of a Gallipoli connection to the Armenian genocide than this article mentions. Many of the Allied and Australian POWs captured at Gallipoli were witnesses to the deportations of the Armenians. Among the witnesses are Sir Thomas White of the Australian Flying Corps, Lietenant Luscombe of the 14th Battalion AIF. The POWs were held in abandoned Armenian churches and homes in Afion Karahissar, Western Turkey and Ankara, central Turkey.

In 1915, a relief movement began in Melbourne to save the suvivors of the Armenian Genocide. The movement spread to every state in the country and many Anzac veterans took part in the appeals. Brigadier-General Stanley Price Weir, a Gallipli veteran was the treasurer of the Armenian Relief Fund of Australasia. In 1923, the Australian and New Zealand Relief committees established an Orphanage in Antelias, Beirut, which housed, fed and educated over 1700 Armenian orphans who had survived the genocide.

These are only a few examples of an enormous amount of facts which have been recently unearthed connecting Australia to the Armenian, Greek and Assyrian genocides perpetrated by the Ottoman Turkish government between 1915 to 1923.

David | 19 April 2009  

As we approach the solemnity of Anzac Day Nicholas Toscano has brought to our attention the continued horrors of an abusive history of political power, greed and an ever widening holocaust of humanity that brings a broader and prayerful commemoration of ANZAC Day.

Frank Hornby | 19 April 2009  

Your article is good one but you need to learn some historical facts to make it a more rounded piece. The Armenians weren't the only ones who suffered during WW1; the Greeks and Assyrians were also victims of the genocidal policies of the Committee of Union and Progress and Kemalists. The Greek population was ethnically cleansed from along the Aegean littoral in the early part of 1914 some 12 months before the Armenian Genocide commenced. There were Australian POWs who worked as slave labor on railway construction in the Taurus mountains in SE Turkey during the WW1.

I am a specialist in this period of history and you need to understand that Armenians weren't the only ones who suffered in WW1.

Terry Stavridis | 19 April 2009  

The Armenian tragedy has been hidden from the current generation of Turkish people. Not only have those who speak out been silenced by assassination, but the Turkish Penal Code has been invoked to silence those who correctly refer to these events as genocide. Until the terrible wrongs of the passed are acknowledged, Turkey cannot move forward. At the time when we remember the link between Australia's history and Turkey's history, it is well that we should be mindful of some of the very painful and unresolved aspects of what was happening in other parts of Turkey at that time. Thanks Nicholas for your article.

Jo Dunin | 19 April 2009  

Thank you Nick,David and Terry for widening our vision on the never-ending march of man's hatred of man. Let us reveal both sides of the story for our children to consider. I remember seeing a book titled "Paradise Lost" telling something about the history of Smyrna, another forgotten saga. We can gain much from considering these historical events

Ray | 19 April 2009  

Thank you, Nicholas, for reminding me that Johnny Turk was just as much a puppet of his political masters as the British Tommy and the Aussie Digger.
But it seems to me ironic that the one genocide that we are reminded about almost on a daily basis, that of the Jews by National Socialism in 20th century CE, concerns a people, a race, that under Joshua in the name of God removed (the weakest word I can find to describe the slaughter involved) another, the Canaanites, from their land in 13th century BCE. Turkey is not the only country that manipulates history.

Uncle Pat | 20 April 2009  

We need to make a distinction that after May 1919, Turkey had two rival governments: the official Government of the Sultan under Allied control and occupation in Constantinople and the Turkish nationalist administration of Mustapha Kemal Pasha at Angora (Ankara). The Kemalist movement was born out of two Congresses at Sivas and Erzeroum in July and September 1919 with the intention of driving out the Greek army out of Smyrna (Izmir). The Treaty of Sevres signed in August 10, 1920 establishing peace between the Allied Powers and Ottoman Empire was rejected by the Kemalists. I hope this information helps out.

Should anyone wish to communicate with me on the historical issues of this period,I would be more than the delighted to pass on any information. I give permission to the moderator to give out my email address to any interested individual. I have researched and written on the Greek, Armenians and Assyrians covering the years 1914-23.

Terry Stavridis | 20 April 2009  

What a gripping tale! How splendidly laid out for the readers! I am convinced had the Western Ambassadors reacted as strongly then as they did during President Ahmadinejad's recent Speech, there would have been no Holocaust of Jews 20 years later! I am just at a loss why the West reacts so hysterically for the SECOND Holocaust of the Twentieth Century; yet demands academic studies for the FIRST Holocaust of the Twentieth Century! The silence of the West, the hypocritical French and Germans and the Brits in the Denial of this greatest of all human tragedies in 1915 is shameful.

I am gratified that lone voices are raised as witnessed by this ably researched and written article.

I urge the Great Nation of Turkey to face up to its inhumane Past and instead of buying off the corrupt Western Political Elite, confront the Issue, RECOGNIZE the Genocide-Holocaust of 1915, and make amends with the survivors of that Holocaust.

Turkey needs to come clean, and accept the Past, and MOVE ON! I have found a great yearning in many Turks to do just that. I love Turkey and the Great Turks; and it is time they live up to their greatness!

Good going!

Nader Rastegar | 20 April 2009  

A very moderate and restrained article. Whilst past experience suggests that terrible events soon pass from the public mind, articles like this serve a useful purpose in reminding readers of historical events without generating further hatreds.

I am encouraged to delve into the matter further.

Professor Desmond O'Connor | 21 April 2009  

1915 Turkey at war. She is attacked from every front; British and Anzacs in Gallipoli, Russians on East and Arabs and British on south; that's not ordinary war that's war to live or die; Armenian and greek minorities think that Turkey on death bed; see the oportunity, think that this is their day, attack the villages (full of children and woman without any man as all are fighting in front) kills thousands of innocents including my gradmum's family at the hands of armenians. But Turkey resist at all the fronts despite she loses quarter of her citizens. In order to stop these tugs, Turkey does mass deportation of Armenian and Greek minorities to another part (Syria which was part of Turkey at that time)That's not genocide that's self defence.

Every soul in Turkey is in deep appreciation of our grand dads who lost their life to protect us so that we live in peaceful, independent country.

rasit | 21 April 2009  

Great article Mr Toscano, I have read a lot about the Armenian Genocide, but this is one of the best articles I have read in a while. I had never thought much about the Australian/Gallipoli connection either, that is very interesting.

jks | 21 April 2009  

I would like to mention that Mr Vahe Kateb's excellent MA thesis on the Australian press coverage of the Armenian Genocide can be downloaded here.

Terry Stavridis | 21 April 2009  

Nader Rastegar's post is a good example of the Turkish government's official historical narrative on the events. Armenian women, children and elderly were seen as an enemy of the state so had to be 'relocated' by foot to the uninhabitable regions of the empire without the necessary provisions to sustain life.

If such denial is accomodated by western powers to appease Turkey, then we should not be suprised if such acts of genocide are repeated in other parts of the world. For us humans who desire to live in a better world, we must be relentless in our pursuits to not allow the Turkish government from getting away with this "crime against humanity and civilisation".

David | 21 April 2009  

Thanks for a great article. I invite all your readers to visit the Armenian Nation Institute's website for more information. http://www.armenian-genocide.org/

Armen | 21 April 2009  

What about the Kurds?

Gavan | 21 April 2009  

Rasit's comments are the typical Turkish denial of Genocide.

Terry Stavridis | 22 April 2009  

Thanks and congratulations to Mr Toscano for his comments on the Armenian Genocide, one that needs no further analysis, investigation, or analysis as suggested by some who refuse to recognise the truth that it was a premeditated, calculated genocide to rid Turkey of its indigenous minority Christian Armenian population, which they began under the guise of WWI.

Turkey was to be for Turks only and those who were persistent in maintaining their Armenian, Greek or Assyrian identity were disposable. The Armenians in particular were subjected to the most savage and inhumane brutality. The Turks' atrocities cannot be denied. Hundreds of recognised world scholars agree to its validity. The present day Turkish government and those who agree with them in the denial of their responsibility of the Armenian Genocide, are just as guilty as the Ottoman Turks of 1915-1923.

Are not the lives of 1.5 million Armenian needlessly lost in terrible deaths just as important as those who perished in the Holocaust?

All those Armenians who died in hideous fashion by mass drownings, hatchets, axes, burned alive, rape, mutilation, starvation, thirst, disease, whose bones fill the river beds and desert are my ancesters. We will never forget. The battle is ours to win.

Betty Apigian Kessel | 22 April 2009  

An interesting subject, great article and good comment discussion. It is worth mentioning that 1915 wasn't the beginning of genocide (a term that wasn't used until the '40s). Systematic massacres of Armenians, sanctioned by the Ottoman Empire, occurred for many years before.

Reports from European ambassadors and missionaries chronicle the slaughter of the 1890s for example. Six years before Gallipoli one journalist claimed 'Never has the burning of a town been more systematically carried out than at Adana in 1909'.

What concerns me the most is that issues of nationality, race and pride - blind allegiance - remain attached to these subjects so long after the events. Denials, recriminations and arguments don't serve to benefit humanity. They don't deal with the important issues: they don't help prevent the attitudes that lead to such events occurring, they don't prevent these events from happening again.

Bizarrely I owe my existence in part to both Jewish and Armenian genocides - to me a fact and source of interest rather than an issue of pride. Some of my ancestors were working class Nazis, some were Armenian refugees moved from country to country, and others were British soldiers who fought in both wars.

Graham Reeks | 24 April 2009  

It is interesting to note that the word Holocaust was used in some newspaper accounts to the Armenian massacres of the 1890s. The word is of Greek origin Olocavtoma meaning to destroy root and branch.

Terry Stavridis | 26 April 2009  

Interesting article and very well written. The Armenian genocide of 1915 is indisputable in my mind, because of all the first hand reports from eye witnesses in the archives (American, British, French, Australian and even German who were allied with Turks at the time). What is tragic now is to find a government, namely the Turkish government, that is capable of brainwashing its citizens to ignore common sense and historic facts the same way that National Socialists did before 1945. The German population was also in denial of the Holocaust until confronted by their own post-war government.

Francis | 27 April 2009  

It's well described, nothing to add to those horrors commited by muslim turks and kurds against Armenian Nation. from the bottom of my heart I say Gracie mille to Toscano.

Christian Armenia | 28 April 2009  

On 30 April, 2009 at 11.30 am the South Australian House of Assembly will pass a bill to recognise the Armenian, Pontian Greek and Assyrian Genocides which were perpetuated in the same period of history by the Ottoman Turks. Records of these atrocities are in the SA Library Archives and the National War Museum houses diaries of ANZAC POW's who witnessed the genocide.

Australians gave generously to the Armenian and Greek orphans who were survivors through the Armenian Relief Fund. These genocides cannot be covered up, swept under the carpet. Turkey must own its own past!

Philippa Olsen | 29 April 2009  

Nicholas, i want to commend you on your article. As an Australian-Armenian i am inspired by your insight into our race and your attempt at informing Australians of this 'forgotten holocaust'.

May God bless you

From a descendant of Survivors of the Armenian Genocide

Edward Arakelian | 30 April 2009  

The motion on the Pontian, Armenian and Assyrian Genocide was passed by the SA Parliament. Mr Atkinson should be congratulated for his fine work and now on to Canberra.

Terry Stavridis | 30 April 2009  

Nice article Mr Toscano,

I wonder how much time you spent digging into National Archives to do your research.

Mr Toscano, you write: "Due to nothing more than a fear of Armenians siding with the Russians..."

Russian Archives report that over 200,000 Armenians volounteered to fight against the Ottoman Muslims.
Is that what you call "Nothing but fear"?

Robert | 03 May 2009  

Concerning that famous "Hitler quote", "Who now remembers the Armenians?" ...

The quote had been declared "a forgery" since 1984, that was 25 years ago.

Dr Robert John, a historian and political analyst of Armenian descent from New York City, declared that a commonly used quotation of an alleged statement by Adolf Hitler concerning the Armenian massacres was a forgery and should not be used.

During the Nuremberg trial, the German defense lawyers were able to introduce the most complete account of the August 22 1939 address, taken down by German Admiral Hermann Boehm, which runs to 12 pages in translation. There is NO mention of the Armenians or the rest of the “quotation.”

Kevrok Bardakciyan in a June 11, 2005 interview admits clearly that the statement of Hitler saying that "who remembers the murdered Armenians?" could not be found out despite all the searches in the archives. "… I have conducted researches for eighteen months in order to reach an evidence of this statement. I could not find out valid evidence proving that Hitler said such a statement..."

Robert | 03 May 2009  

This is addressed to Robert. Just wondering do you the deny the Armenian Genocide?

Terry Stavridis | 03 May 2009  

In response to Terry,

Genocide is a legal term that can ONLY be attributed to a group, government, country, etc. by a competent Court of Justice, which is NOT the case here.

As a lawyer, I have to examine, scrutinise both sides when someone is accused of committing a murder.

The Ottoman Empire has been found guilty of Genocide in Absentia by the West.

Now, back to your question, I simply brought up some "overlooked" facts.

Does that make me a denier ?

It is well documented that there were massacres "en masse", BUT, were they sponsored by the State?

Mr Ara Sarafian, one of the very few who can read Ottoman spent years in various archives and yet, hasn't come up with the "Ultimate" proof that the Government of the Empire ordered the "elimination" of the Armenian race.

Robert | 04 May 2009  

Raphael Lemkin the man who coined the word genocide based in large part on what had happened to the Armenians. Lemkin also stated on national television that 'it happened to the Armenians'. Arguing that what occured to the Armenians was not genocide is like saying that the fruit Orange is not orange in colour. (i.e. the word orange comes from the fruit).

David | 05 May 2009  

Dear Robert

Raphael Lemkin the man who coined the word genocide based in large part on what had happened to the Armenians. Lemkin also stated on national television that 'it happened to the Armenians'. Arguing that what occured to the Armenians was not genocide is like saying that the fruit Orange is not orange in colour. (i.e. the word orange comes from the fruit).

David | 05 May 2009  


Could you please point out where I might have said that what happened to the Armenians was not a Genocide?

As for Mr Raphael Lemkin, as he may have referred to the Armenian case when he coined the word Genocide, he also meant the word to be a legal one, certainly not a political one.

Robert | 05 May 2009  

Dear Robert

You are questioning whether the massacres and deportations were "state organised" by stating that even Ara Sarafian 'hasn't come up with the "Ultimate" proof that the Government of the Empire ordered the "elimination" of the Armenian race.' Therefore you are implying that genocide may not have taken place.

I know Ara Sarafian personally, and his conclusion on the event are that it was 'Genocide'. In the case of the Shoah, no written document signed by Hitler which is "Ultimate" proof has been found either. However, it can be deduced it was genocide by paying attention to the systematic nature of the killings and the fact that one particular group was targetted. In addition to this, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda ruled that in the absence of written documents, intent to commit genocide can be deduced from the systematic nature and scope of the killings.

Finally, the Black Book of Talaat Pasha who ordered the mass deportation of Armenians has been recently published. It contains incredible details as to the demographic distribition of Armenians before and after the deportations. 1 million are unaccountable.

David | 05 May 2009  

I would like to highlight several facts. Turks recognize the Armenian tragedy. However, the events that happened between 1915-1923 cannot be termed as genocide. In the First World War, a front was opened in the east where most Ottoman Armenians lived. Some Ottoman Armenians were focusing on carving up an independent state with Russian help.

The Armenian terrorist groups attacked the Turkish villages and killed many innocent people, mainly children and women because the men in the villages were fighting on different fronts as a part of the Ottoman Army, leaving their families behind.

In one recent documentary, a Turkish lady who witnessed these mass killings said everybody in her village including pregnant women, children and animals was killed. Our Armenian friends always quote the tragedy their grandparents endured, but don't acknowledge the terrorist attacks by the Armenian militia in Turkish and Kurdish villages. The Ottoman government decided to transport the Armenian population in different parts of the empire until the war ended. Many Armenians unfortunately died.

The number of deaths is also controversial. The documentary proofs don't support any claim more than 300,000 Armenian casualties. I believe the Ottoman action against the Armenians cannot be termed as "genocide" because first, most of the Armenians who lived in other parts of the empire were not deported (i.e. in Istanbul). This proves that deportation was local and didn't aim at massacring people.

Second, genocide is used for one-sided acts. Armenians also caused local atrocities and many Turks and Kurds suffered.

Finally, there is no indication of anti-Armenian sentiment in Ottoman documents before these incidents. No clear proof of a "genocide order" has been found.
I believe the Armenian and Turkish people should remember the tragic incidents and give credit to their recollection of events and make research based on the documents. History shouldn't be merely written by the memories of our grandfathers and grandmothers.

mustafa | 06 May 2009  

What I am "implying" is that without a Competent Court judgement, the Genocide label should not be used.

Mr. Ara Sarafian knows certainly more than me and you on the subject and that is why I give him credit for what he is doing.

I honestly believe that there were indeed rogue elements in the Forces and that they inflicted inhuman treatments and death upon the Armenian people.

It has to be mentioned also that many of those elements have been caught, trialed and hanged by the Turks at the end of the war.

But until now, there are no direct orders given by the Government of the time to Eliminate the Armenians.

The 2 cases that you refer, the Shoah and the Rwanda cases, have been labeled as Genocide by a Court, not by lobbied Governments.

As you write, concerning the Black book of Talat Pasha, nearly 1 million Armenians were "Unaccountable".
It doesn't mean that they were dead, as many of the Armenian people fled to other countries, Russia, France, Lebanon, Syria as well as the USA.
Many of them also converted to Islam and changed their names, probably by force or by means of survival.

Robert | 06 May 2009  

Dear Robert

I agree that for punitive measures to be taken against Turkey it must be found guilty of genocide by an international court. This however, does not stop individuals, governments and institutions from recognising that what happened to the Armenians during World War One was genocide. In fact it was common for journalists, eyewitnesses and diplomats (including German) to have called what was happening to the Armenians as an attempt "to exterminate a race" or "Race murder". If you look at the Oxford dictionary for the definition of Genocide it will say "the extermination of a race". In regards to orders to eliminate the Armenians, if you look at the Postwar trials held in Istanbul in 1919/20, it was found that Talaat's official written orders for deportation of the Armenians were accompanied by verbal orders by CUP members ordering the elimination of the Armenians. In fact, regardless of these written and verbal orders, as in the case of Rwanda, the fact that a particular group (subjects of the Ottoman Empire) were targetted and a large portion of them died can constitute genocide. Most of the Armenians who survived in Syria/lebanon/palestine/Iraq was due to the unprecedented international humanitarian response.

David | 06 May 2009  


Sorry for not addressing my previous post to you.

Since we know that what Armenia and its diaspora are mainly looking for is, recognition of the Genocide, reparation (financial I assume) and land restitution, wouldn't you agree then that the best way to achieve that goal would be to bring the case up to the Hague, instead of spending so much efforts and money lobbying various groups and Governments ?

Especially since the present government of Turkey (PM Erdogan) said that it would accept / comply to such a verdict from a competent Court...

I don't know about you David, but me, I would never bow to civilian or external pressure in order to accept a murder charge unless it comes from a Court of Justice where I would be able to present a legal defence.

So what makes one think that Turkey would accept a Genocide charge without a Court verdict ?

You mentioned: "...orders for deportation of the Armenians were accompanied by verbal orders..."
I am not aware of that part of the "story", would you be so kind to point me to some references relating to those verbal orders please ?

Thank you,

Robert | 08 May 2009  

I am not an international law expert and not an Armenian of the Diaspora so you may need to ask the Armenian foreign ministry on why they have not taken the issue to The Hague. In regards to a reference to the verbal orders, I suggest you read the article “Debating the Armenian Massacres in the last Ottoman Parliament November – December 1918” by Ayhan Aktar, History Workshop Journal. The following is from p. 261 of the article: ‘Resit Akif Pasha, a Turkish parliamentarian who conducted research into the Armenian deportations in 1918, states:

“There are certain confidential things that I learned during my public service, which did not last more than 25 to 30 days, in the Ahmet _Izzet Pasha cabinet. In that respect, I encountered something quite strange. These orders of deportation had been given by the well-known Minister of Interior [Talat Pasha] and officially communicated to [governors in] the provinces. Following these official communique´ s, the CentralCommittee [of the CUP] sent orders everywhere in order to secure the gangs to complete their devilish duty. Therefore, the gangs went further and cruel mutual killings took place.” Source: Meclis-i Ayan Zabit Ceridesi (Minutes Book of the Senate), p. 123’

David | 09 May 2009  

Thank you David,

Will certainly look into it...

Robert | 10 May 2009  

Well, we turks have our own accounts on this "so called" genocide. Your assumptions are based on the biased writings of christian missionaries, who were tasked with distributing propoganda. A similiar propoganda affected the Germans in WWI aswell, but only for a limited time, for they were washed clean after that. Our government calls out for the discussion of the subject by historians from both Turkish and Armenian side. Our archives are wide open for anyone to see. But yet, no one really cares.

I'd really like to see the Armenians challenging our historians in an open debate of the genocide allegations, and clear this issue out. We won't let you shame the names of our ancestors this easily. Calling us "the first Nazis" and our nation a nation of bloodthirsty barbarians, will never get you anywhere.

mehmet | 10 October 2009  

Hi Nick, im doing this essay on communities that were not commemorated during the end of ww1 and that fought or did sumfin at gallipoli... wondering if u could help me out

Theo | 01 November 2009  

Excellent article. Author Jennifer Lawless has a book being released on the 1st November telling the story of the Gallipoli POWs. I will leave the URL to the book for those interested: https://www.books-forever.com.au/productDetails/9781925003611/Kismet-The-Story-of-Gallipoli-POWs

James | 27 October 2014  

Mr. Toscano in my opinion you should research historical events from all aspects without prejudice before writing article. First of all your article is not about Gallipoli.:):)Turks didn't make any systematic genocide they just wanted to solve problem Armenian rebellions and collaborators who have supported Russian empire. Those guerrillas attacked logistic convoys ,killed civilians ,burned villages.i recommend you books of Justin McCarthy.He is impartial writer and writing according to historical facts.According to facts millions of Muslims also died due to Armenian vandalism. I'm agree that during deportation due to hard condition , starvation and due to attacks of some Turks who wanted to revenge for their killed family many people died.But not 1.5 million Armenians as you claim.Where is the facts about underground caves in what were the world's first gas chambers or systematic executions.You are just brainwashed and you must rely on fact when you are writing about historical events. Turkish government every year suggesting to create a commission which consist of historians .archaeologists and open archives of Ottoman Empire, Armenia,Russian empire and to research this so-called genocide.Why Armenian officials didn't agree? Because they also know that it is just big lie and political instrument to press Republic of Turkey.If you are impartial and feeling sad due to vandalism of mankind please check the Khojaly massacre which is made by Armeninans against Azerbaijan Turks in 1992 during Nagorno Karabakh conflict. People murdered 613 (woman 106,children 63,aged man 70 ,hostages 1275).Yon can find video of this massacre on you tube and can enjoy the the art of massacre which is made by poor Armenians.Also don't forget to check the history of your country and please write about systematic massacres of Indigenous Australians starting from 1790 and till the 1920's.

Turan Samidli | 28 March 2018  

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