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Fundamentalism in the land of Jesus


Israel flag in desert

For well over a decade, compassionate Christians have watched in horror as a string of Middle Eastern countries have collapsed into chaos and violence. What has been less noticed is that the chaos is being used to destroy the heart of Christianity in those lands where it had flourished for 1500 years.

What is being cut down is the trunk upon which the Churches in the West still rest. That it has gone largely unremarked says much about the lack of understanding of the religion’s history. Such amnesia poses a deep peril not just to the heritage of Christianity, but to capturing its true spirit.

Let us start with the land of Jesus, and in Jerusalem. Israel is now demanding to be recognised as a Jewish state; the corollary is that they have an interest in getting Christians out. There are regular attacks on Christian institutions. Christian properties in East Jerusalem are slowly being seized. Nuns and clergy are routinely abused in an effort to encourage them to leave. Being spat upon in the street is not a rare occurrence.

On the Palestinian side, the Islamic influence has been intensifying for decades, in part because Christian Palestinians have found it easier to leave.  This has an equally marginalising effect. To be a Christian in the Holy Land is to be doubly an outsider, a resident alien in your own country. The same situation is vivid in crucial towns like Bethlehem and Nazareth. Many Christians have left.

The destruction of traditional Christian ranks is occurring across the Levant. The numbers of Iraqi Christians has been brutally reduced: down to about 250,000-400,000 from 1.2-1.5 million. ISIS represents a mortal threat to those who remain. In Syria, Christians are in extreme danger. The Christian communities of Syria constitute almost a tenth of the Syrian population. They have been systematically targeted. Churches have been desecrated; priests, monks, and nuns have been kidnapped and murdered. Again, the religious ethnic cleansing is intense and effective, pushed as much by Shia and Sunni, Assad’s Alawite Islamists as by the jihadists of all colours.

So why has there been so little concern about this destruction of the Christian heritage? It should be remembered that three of the five founding Sees of the Early Church, three of the ancient Christian Patriarchates, are situated in the region: Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria. Only Rome and Constantinople are outside the region, but even so, the situation of Constantinople is always tense and its Christian numbers have also fallen.  

These traditional Christian regions are under attack from various types of religious fundamentalism, which has led to a widespread blindness to what is happening. Fundamentalism is a religious wolf in sheep's clothing. It represents a denial of the mystery of the relationship between God and the world.

It resorts to simplistic interpretations of how God acts in the world that cannot be true, and in the process it reduces revelation to fairy stories. It is scandalised to discover that revelation, like Joseph's coat, is multi-coloured. The fundamentalist is horrified that revelation has been a developmental process throughout history. God has been revealing himself in shadows and images in many non-Christian cultures, but to the fundamentalist these things are rejected as pagan and foreign. Not one of 'us'.

Fundamentalists typically focus on the outward forms of religion – who is following the rules and practices, who belongs to which 'tribe', who shows allegiance to the religious leader – while descending into deeply irreligious behaviour. Witness the savagery of Muslim fundamentalists who, it is often pointed out, act against many of the basic religious instincts of human beings and flout some of the teachings about respect for human life in the Koran.

The fundamentalism of the American Bible Belt is deeply culpable. Their celebration of the Jews' return to Israel, in the belief that this is predicted by the Book of Revelation and heralds the Second Coming and the so-called 'Rapture',  demonstrates a heartless lack of sympathy for Christians in the Holy Land. 

The dangers of fundamentalism are seen in egregious examples like the Westboro Baptist Church's campaigns against gays, which presents  a God of hate, not a God who is love. The end of this road is a sick delight when human beings slaughter each other, a perversion that is truly Satanic. 

The Zionist fundamentalists in Israel wish to impose a religious apartheid on what has been the heart of Christianity since its inception. Whereas Christianity acknowledges a deep connection between itself and Judaism, Zionists only have eyes for their own interests, rejecting the universalism of their own faith.  

Political fundamentalism, which is routinely based on ideological perversions of religious ideas, is evident in the demonisation of nations as 'evil': Iran, Syria, Iraq, Libya, North Korea. It can also be seen operating within totalitarian nations. As G.K. Chesterton observed, 'bad government, like good government, is a spiritual thing. Even the tyrant does not live by force alone; but mostly by fairy tales'.

Fundamentalism leads to dishonesty and cowardice. It creates the perfect audience for the disinformation and propaganda that have become the norm in public media, which is why so few are noticing the slaughter of some of the world's oldest Christian groups and the destruction of the Christian heritage. Far better to see the world as made up of good and bad people (naturally placing oneself amongst the 'good', the self-declared righteous) than taking responsibility for one's own evil or indifferent acts. It represents a massive failure of conscience by both individuals and states, occurring at the very heart of the Christian life.

The Western ear needs to hear the cries of Christians from the East; at the very least they are deserving of empathy. It needs to hear the famous question put to of Cain, 'Where is your brother?' and to consider Cain's response, 'Am I my brother's Keeper?' (Gen 4:9). God’s command to the hate-filled fundamentalist, whether they are Muslims, Jews or Christians, remains 'Love they neighbour as thyself,' (Mk 12:31) and reminds them that 'When you did this to the least of my brethren, you did it to me.' (Matt 25:40)

The main imperative, however, is military. It is stating the obvious to say that a deadly game of geo-strategic militarism is plaguing the region. America and Islamic militants have let loose the dogs of war and the masters cannot control them, except to wreak havoc. It is murky and brutal, and there are many shades of evil. The simple portrayal of right and wrong presented on Western media is deeply deceptive: as ever, truth is the first casualty of war. As one Iraqi priest pertinently asked: 'Who is funding ISIS, which has heavy weaponry costing billions?'

But what is not in question is who are among the victims in this deadly regional game. Christians from the most ancient Churches of all. 

Lawrence CrossArchpriest Dr Lawrence Cross OAM is the pastor of Holy Trinity St Nicholas Russian Catholic Church in East St Kilda and leader of the Russian Byzantine Catholic Mission in Australia. He is an alumnus of the University of Sydney, of St John’s College, Oxford and the Melbourne College of Divinity.

Israel flag image by Shutterstock.


Topic tags: Lawrence Cross, Zionism, fundamentalism, Israel, Middle East, Christianity, extremism, ISIS



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Only say God has sent guidance to mankind since its creation many generation nation has passed with. Their prophets PBUT. all. Divine Book Torah Inji and Qur'an & many guidance sent dowon. The promlem is every nation folliwer s interpreted the teaching according to his need and some have change verses according to what he liked & followed. There created INDESCRIMATION which cover what we are actually observing right now. The reason is we have not followed the Word of God. Definetly Hereafter every in dual has to reply To HIM Hereafter.

khaleeluddinkhanmohammad@gmail.com | 20 January 2015  

A generally excellent article. The gradual diminution of the Middle East's Christian population has been taking place since the mid-19th Century, when those, principally from Syria and Lebanon, began to migrate, mainly to North and South America. The well documented massacres of Assyrian and Armenian Christians in the early 20th Century in the Ottoman Empire were a sign of what was to come. Being a "dhimmi" in a Muslim country - with supposed "protection" as long as you paid the poll tax - was very much being a second class citizen. I fear the only Middle Eastern country where a sizeable number of Christians will remain is Egypt because they will not convert, and, at about 10% of the population, they will, by and large, have to remain. I was under the impression that, in Syria, there were no problems between Alawis and Christians. I remember being advised of the situation of Christians in Israel you mention years ago by an Anglican cleric who had recently visited. Saudi Arabia and the Gulf were the main sources of funds for Sunni extremism. ISIS is now largely self-funding.

Edward Fido | 21 January 2015  

"It resorts to simplistic interpretations of how God acts in the world that cannot be true" This is regression to the assumption most infants have that they are the centre of the universe. Most religions are somewhat tainted with this idea- that they alone know the true path to God. What is needed is a mature and inclusive Vision that sees a Personal God calling everyone to raise their sights. Proverbs 29:18 warns:-Without Vision, the people perish. Or," If we do not appreciate God's Constant and Universal Call, we will regress to feral state, and take to, and perish by the sword." The Fundamentals of Religion are:- "Love God above all, and all others as oneself."

Robert Liddy | 21 January 2015  

A well researched and excellent article. Thank you for the words and thoughts that you have written. I would love to see your article in the general press, rather than just here. Eurekastreet carries a prejudice stigma of its own. Your article is better than this, and more people should be exposed to it. Thanks again.

Stefan | 21 January 2015  

I too have not heard of any problems between Alawis and Christians in Syria, any evidence of this?

chris g | 21 January 2015  

Excellent article, and very sad. Unfortunately, Western elites in politics, journalism and the media, and indeed general society, has just no idea of the pre-Islam history of "the middle East"or of its Christian heritage. They care even less I`m afraid. The protestant reformation and then the catholic counter-reformation which made the RC church focus on European issues added so much to this loss of memory, and protestants have never even had it in their DNA.

Eugene | 21 January 2015  

Thank you Dr Cross for putting this horror in perspective through facing truth something which few are prepared to do these days. While it is not a very Christian thing to say, I can see why the crusades might not have been as universally bad as Christendom's critics would like to imply. The apostate West is highly culpable, lead by God's own country, the USA. The pathetic American habit of US politicians with hands on breasts demanding of God that he "love America" is hardly likely to be heeded. But wouldn't it be very nice if God just sorted out the idiots of the world. He must be heartily fed up with the mess of his creation of which he was reportedly so pleased Are we approaching the second coming - or the first for Israel? I hope that question doesn't brand me a fundamentalist!

john frawley | 21 January 2015  

a wonderfully compassionate exposition thank you

Ruth | 21 January 2015  

I’ve been reading about persecuted Christians leaving the Middle East for years, mostly from a Jewish source. Even before 9/11, Daniel Pipes wrote an article “Disappearing Christians in the Middle East.” He has also been writing about Jews leaving Europe and heading for Israel as a result of Jewish persecution from rising Muslim populations all across Europe. I note that all four Jews murdered in the Hyper Cachet supermarket in Paris have been taken to Israel for burial. Jews now feel safer in tiny Israel surrounded by hundreds of millions who hate it and want to destroy it, than they do in Europe which was the cradle of Western civilization and liberal democracies. Doesn’t this scream out something to you? Or have you eyes that do not see; ears that do not hear?

Ross Howard | 21 January 2015  

The fundamentals for Jews and Muslims, the two biggest groups in Israel - Palestine involve the conviction that both groups have divine authority to settle in that land space and call it their home. This authority comes from what they see separately as coming from their holy Scriptures. As long as the relationship between the God of the Hebrew Scriptures and Allah of the Quran with the two peoples of these Books involves absolute ownership, possession and occupation of the same tract of land, then there will never be peace only a continuation of hostility, violence, and exclusion which has marked the relationship between 'cousins' especially over the past century or so. Paradoxically, it is the Palestinian Arab Christians and the few Judaeo-Christians, with no claim that Land is fundamental to their identity, who are under the most pressure from Jew and Muslim. In surrounding Muslim countries, the memory and stigma of the Crusades do nothing to help the tiny remaining Christian Communities.

David Timbs | 21 January 2015  

Powerful and moving article. We really are 'sleepwalking through history'. Thank you Lawrence.

Michael | 21 January 2015  

Christians throughout the Mid East are expelled, massacred, driven out, and deprived of their freedoms everywhere but in Israel, where currently Christians are reclaiming their original non-Arabic heritage and language and expressing their loyalty to Israel including fighting in the Army. http://www.thetower.org/article/christians-in-the-holy-land-dont-call-us-arabs/ Cross's bogus claim that the Jewish state wishes to exclude non Jews is pure fiction and has never been part of its history, right from its inception.

Rachael Kohn | 21 January 2015  

This is the biggest load of crap I have ever read. No sources for attacks on Christians by Israelis, just wild claims.
Israelis want to live in peace. Why do you perpetuate such evil?

Ead | 22 January 2015  

I don't know where Dr Cross gets his information about Israel from, but it isn't the same place where I and other Middle East specialists get ours from. Perhaps he just likes reading fantasy. Israel is the only country in the ME where religious minorities like Christians, Druze, Baha'is etc are free from persecution and the only country whose Christian population has risen since 1948. He should concentrate on the mistreatment of Christians elsewhere. I mentioned the Bahaa'is, hated by Muslims everywhere and severely persecuted in Iran, where they are killed. In Israel, they have their international centre, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and run their affair worldwide on 5 continents. They aren't native to Israel, but the Israelis help them becaue they are a people of peace. Israel has a Law for the Protection of Holy Places. In the ME, ISIS, Iran and Saudi Arabia are destroying churches, Baha'i holy places, and even Muslim sites. In Israel they are protected by law. Why would such a country try to expel Christians or anyone else – something it has never done. Facts, Dr Cross, come before fantasy. Whoever told you this was lying.

Dr. Denis MacEoin | 22 January 2015  

How sad that Dr Cross has such a biased and anti semistic view of Israel. The Israelies are so respectful to the customs and buildings of the Christians and consider them to be co-existing in the only piece of land in the entire world where there has been Jews for thousands of years -certainly before Christianity. Christians are unable to live safely in most other Middle East countries. Israel is a Jewish state but has no interest in expelling Christians unlike the history of Christians expelling Jews.

Sandra Fisher | 22 January 2015  

Israel is the only true democracy in the Middle East and the only state that protects and gives freedom of expression to its minorities including the Christians. There is no evidence that recognising Israel as a Jewish State will lead to any different outcome - Dr Lawrence's 'corollary' is of his own imagination. Since Bethlehem came under the jurisdiction of the PA, Christians have been leaving because of maltreatment by the local Muslim population, not because they are persecuted by Israel. The same religious freedoms given by Israel as a Jewish State, to its minorities, are not available in those nations which name themselves as Islamic States. Persecution of Christians in the Middle East is coming at the hands of radical Islamists not at the hands of so called fundamentalists - political, religious or otherwise. Time to tell the truth - radical Islam is the problem not the Jewish State.

Fiona Stucken | 22 January 2015  

While many of the issues raised by Dr Cross are correct, in particular the treatment of Christians in the Arab states and Iran, his comments regarding Israel are without foundation and also appear to be based on a flawed theology. In your two hundred word limit it is not possible to address the theological issues but with regard to Israel Dr Cross and his readers need to be made aware of some facts. Dr Cross claims that "Israel is now demanding to be recognised as a Jewish state;", but what is new about this? The Balfour Declaration, the post WWI binding agreements (AKA San Remo agreements) and the UN Declaration in 1948 all recognise that the modern state of Israel will be a Jewish state. In particular the San Remo agreements gave to Israel all the land that it now occupies with one of the conditions being that the future state of Israel must have freedom of religion. Israel has since 1948 strictly adhered to this condition. In every country of the world there are those who are anti-Christian and Israel is no exception however Dr Cross implies that Israel is an anti-Christian state. The current Prime Minister of Israel has stated on a number of occasions that Christian are the best friends that Israel has. As someone who spent the last five years of his secondary education in a Jesuit school the publication of the flawed views of Dr Cross make me sad. I trust you will give an equivalent amount of space to someone who can counter his views.

Phillip Cuming | 22 January 2015  

(1) Eugene: if "Protestants" include Episcopalians/Anglicans, Episcopalians (most including their Archbishop) Arab), though tiny in number, continue to punch above their weight, especially on the West Bank and Jordan in term of schools and social services and in Gaza medically (and even in Baghdad in recent times) and the C.of E. has long had links with Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches. (2) Christians are in a far,far better situation in Israel than in much of the Middle East (Lebanon a notable exception). However, I should challenge all those who see no wrong in policies and practices in Israel (and judging by reaction to any criticism, there seem to be many) to read "The Unmaking of Israel" by Gershom Gorenberg, Jewish journalist and historian, living in Jerusalem, who has written e.g. for The New York Times Magazine, The New York Review of Books, The Atlantic, and in Hebrew for Ha'aretz, and who has reported from the region for 25 years. His words, I think, are prophetic.

John Bunyan | 23 January 2015  

I was stunned to see this entirely non-factual representation of Israel and Christians published in what should be reputable journal. . Israel is in fact the ONLY country in all of the Middle East where the Christian population of Israel has increased: quadrupled from approx. 34,000 in 1948 to over 150,000 today. Has Dr Cross never heard of Israeli Greek Orthodox priest, the world’s most vocal Christian on this issue, who told the UN in September 2014 that “Israel is the only place where the Christians of the Holy Land live in safety.” To say “the Islamic influence [in Palestinian Territories] has been intensifying for decades…Many Christian have left” is a complete misrepresentation. To quote Palestinian Christian leader, Pastor Steve Khoury of the First Baptist Church of Bethlehem May 2013, “Christians are facing constant harassment including imprisonment, flogging and often forced to convert to Islam.” Khoury’s church has been firebombed 14 times. The Palestinian Land Law prescribes the death penalty for selling land to Jews. Christians including Khoury say that it is also enforced if land is sold to Christians. Dr Cross needs to get his facts straight. The publication of his antisemitic incitement discredits the whole Australian Jesuit movement.

Lynda Ben-Menashe | 23 January 2015  

It is so sad that Israel is usually the only Middle Eastern country being penalized when it is the only democratic country in that region where Christians can live safely, have equal rights and are appreciated. It is sad too that there is almost a media blackout on the persecution of Christians in the Muslim middle eastern countries.

Helen Green | 23 January 2015  

Your article makes allegations which are as erroneous as they are irresponsible. It claims Israel wishes to expel its Christian population and implies that it conducts “regular attacks on Christian institutions”. It also levels the slur that Israel wishes to “impose religious apartheid” on Christians. Yet Israel is the one country in the Middle East where the Christian population has increased. When Israel was established 67 years ago, its Christian population was 34,000; today it is 158,000. By comparison, the Christian population of the Middle East generally has dropped from 20 percent at the start of the 20th century to 4 percent today.It is irresponsible journalism to peddle allegations which have no basis in fact. - Vic Alhadeff, CEO, NSW Jewish Board of Deputies

Vic Alhadeff | 23 January 2015  

O My Goodness What a terrible article So much misinformation Jews and Christians live together in Israel in peace. Numbers of Christians in Israel have increased . I have walked the Via Della Rosa with Christians I have visited the Church of Naitivity with Christian friends Please do not write such falsehood To what purpose ?? All religions are respected in Israel and all sites are protected This is pure nonsense Why is nobody marching against the burning of churches in the Arab and African states Yes Christianity is in Peril in these lands BUT NOT in Israel Yes Christianity is in deep danger in these countries but NOT in Israel Lastly as a South African who lived with real Apartheid please stop using this term for Israel Its absolute untruth and betrays those Africans who really suffered under apartheid

Jill | 23 January 2015  

Disappointing commentary on Israel and clearly rather ignorant of the true situation. Christians are given rights in Israel as are all religions that are not Jewish. Kindly refresh your sources and see that they are balanced and not one eyed.

Jenny | 23 January 2015  

It is sad to read an article like this in the Eureka Street Journal. The facts are incorrect and the tone is anti-Semitic. It does not matter if Dr Lawrence Cross has written this piece out of ignorance or intent the damaging effect is the same. The co-operation by Christians in the evil of ongoing and universal anti-Semitism. Antoinette Collins.

Antoinette Collins | 24 January 2015  

Sadly, there is much misinformation in this article. Jews and Christians live in peace and with mutual respect in Israel. Particularly untrue is the idea that Christians are spat on in the street by Jews. You may like to view this video that outlines some real threats to Christians - and it is NOT by Jews.


jana | 24 January 2015  

I am not sure the snowballing attack on Dr Cross for his take on what is happening to Christians in Israel is either factually correct or justified. It is interesting that this topic is heavily debated in Israel and the Jewish populace is divided on this issue. One thing correct is that Israel is a flourishing democracy with a wide variety of opinions amongst both the Jewish and Christian populations. Some local Christians would side with and identify with the Israeli government, others would not. Some of the most vocal defenders of Arab rights are Jewish, some of them with connections to the Founding Heroes of Israel and some who have served with distinction in the IDF.

Edward Fido | 26 January 2015  

The destroyed heartland of Christianity to which my article was referring is not the Holy Land or Israel, or anywhere so western. The Christian heartland for a thousand years after the 5th Century was not in the West at all. The centre of gravity of Christianity began from the back of Syria and extended all the way to the borders of China. By 500 C.E. there was even a metropolitan archbishop in Tibet, so deeply and so far had Christianity spread and penetrated. Jenkins’ History of Lost Christianity will bring the amnesiac, Christian, western historians, and others, up to date with the centuries of religious genocide inflicted on these once flourishing communities. We are presently watching Islam finishing the job. The last Christian eucharist was celebrated in Mosul just a few months ago as the last Christians fled to the Kurds, stripped of all they possessed having refused the invitation, convert or die.

Look at the surrounding powers. Of course it is much better for Christians to be in Israel than in any of its modern neighbours. Does that mean that there are no dark corners in Israeli social and political life? Shining a light into some of these corners is not to be anti- Israeli, let alone anti-Semitic. No country is beyond criticism, including Israel, and there are dark corners to be exposed in regard to the Christian communities. My own first experience of the dark corners was in a Tel Aviv restaurant, quite some time ago, when my Hebrew-speaking, English-Jewish mate eaves dropped and translated the racist conversation at the next table.

Criticism of Israel is not anti-Semitism. That is something else entirely, but approval of everything in Israeli society (as of our own) is simply weak-minded. A ‘can do no wrong’ attitude cannot excuse a Meir Kahane. Yes, he is dead, but what he represented is not. Jewish State for Kahane meant literally racial/religious apartheid. Thank God that Israel is a modern democracy and one hopes that it can be trusted to deal with this kind of extremism, extremism of both views and actions.

Christians in the Holy Land have expressed grave concern for their situation and its future. Fr Pierbattista Pizzabella, the Franciscan Custos of the Holy Places until 2013, is a leading voice. The attempted arson of the Cistercian monastery at Latrun in 2012 and the insulting and abusive graffiti sprayed on its walls, including ‘Jesus is a Monkey’ was only one, but the most publicised incident around that time which raised his grave concern for the relationship of Christians and Jews in the Holy Land. Worse, how was it possible, following this, that a TV show was allowed to go to air nationally, presented by a bikini clad female (hardly a model of devout Jewish womanhood) and a puppet monkey who got to play the role of Jesus in a send-up of his crucifixion? God only knows why a group of ‘christian’ evangelical idiots would want to send Michael Ben-Ari a copy of the New Testament, but what was this member of the Knesset expressing by tearing the book to pieces for the cameras, putting it in the garbage, and advocating that it be banned in Israel? Fr Pizzabella, in his 2012 statement, also noted the spitting and abuse meted out by ultra-Orthodox seminary students in the Old City to Christian clergy and nuns. That is not made up as one of my critics seems to suspect. It has gone on for years.

No, I am not anti-Semitic. I am pro-Isreali, but I am allowed to think that the term ‘Jewish State’ is a problem. If we are looking for a more inclusive term and to avoid Kahane’s take on ‘Jewish State’, why not the more inclusive ‘Jewish Homeland’?

Finally, editors will be editors. The title of my article as submitted was Dimensions of Fundamentalism: Destroying the Historical Heart of Christianity, and I did not choose the accompanying illustration.

Best wishes to all.
Rev Dr Lawrence Cross

Lawrence Cross | 28 January 2015  

Questions for Dr Cross:

If Dr Cross now acknowledges that "Of course it is much better for Christians to be in Israel than in any of its modern neighbours" why does his article start with Israel before moving elsewhere?

If he is pro-Israeli why does he condemn "Zionists" (in addition to condemning "Zionist fundamentalists")?

Why is his article written to evoke a sense of symmetry between the massacres of Christians in the Arab world, and some graffiti in Israel?

Where is his evidence for the very serious allegation that "they (Israel) have an interest in getting Christians out"? Without evidence (and the actions of a few criminal delinquents is not evidence for the intention of the State) his allegation is just a slur.

"Revelation has been a developmental process throughout history". That's a Christian theology. With what right does he demand that other religions subscribe to the same view.

And why does he quote "love your neighbour" from the NT, and not from its original source in the OT (Lev 19:18) - an old trick of Christian antisemites?

Thank you.

James Kennard | 01 February 2015  

The decimation of Christianity in the Levant is a direct result of the intervention of Western Christian nations to dislodge the secular Ba'athist [renaissance] regimes of Iraq and Syria including the Sun'ni regime of Saddam Hussein and the Shia Alawite regime of the Asads who had protected Christians while they could. Likewise, the position of Christians in Palestine is directly linked to its occupation which again is perpetuated not so much by Israel but by the United States and its White Anglo-Saxon Allies.

Pratap Patrick Paikaray [Pratibha Rani Sixer] | 09 March 2015  

There are plenty of non-Israeli Jews and many Israeli Christians, Muslims, Samaritans, Bahá'í, atheists and agnostics who are innocent of any anticipation of a first coming.

Pratap Patrick Paikaray [Pratibha Rani Sixer] | 09 March 2015  

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